Autumn of the Republic
The Jedi Temple on Coruscant is the heart of the Jedi Order. First built 3,300 years ago, the land the temple sits on was gifted to the Jedi by the Senate in hopes that the Republic would be able to keep a closer eye on them (following many high-profile events of Jedi Knights turning to the dark side and nearly bringing ruin to the Republic). The Jedi built a temple there, which came to house the Jedi Council, but it still remained one of several dozen throughout the Republic.
After the defeat and extermination of the Sith about 300 years ago, the Jedi Order reorganized in order to more closely work with the Republic (an event known as the Ruusan Reformation); this reorganization also more strongly codified the apprenticeship process (to a one-on-one process), banned adults and older children from training, and tightened up some of the looser rules (such as marriage and ties to the outside world, which are now forbidden). Outlying academies were shut down, and the Jedi Temple was expanded to enable the entire Jedi Order to live and train there.
The only remaining satellite academy in existence is the Bindu’nal, an enormous ship gifted to the Order to function as a mobile academy. About eight of the twelve members of the Council are at the temple at any given time, and the majority of the Order lives in the temple.